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Neuroscience: Molecule boosts brain rewiring

mercredi 22 octobre 2014
Blocking a brain-cell receptor boosts the brain's ability to form new neuronal connections as it adapts to changing stimuli.Carla Shatz at Stanford University in California and her colleagues disrupted the receptor, PirB, in the visual centre of mouse brains by either genetically deleting (...)

Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Guanjun Wang, Mingfei Zhou, James T. Goettel, Gary J. Schrobilgen, Jing Su, Jun Li, Tobias Schlöder, Sebastian Riedel
One of the most important classifications in chemistry and within the periodic table is the concept of formal oxidation states. The preparation and characterization of compounds containing elements with unusual oxidation states is of great interest to chemists. The highest experimentally known (...)

Characterizing and predicting the magnetic environment leading to solar eruptions

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Tahar Amari, Aurélien Canou, Jean-Jacques Aly
The physical mechanism responsible for coronal mass ejections has been uncertain for many years, in large part because of the difficulty of knowing the three-dimensional magnetic field in the low corona. Two possible models have emerged. In the first, a twisted flux rope moves out of (...)

Two families of exocomets in the β Pictoris system

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par F. Kiefer, A. Lecavelier des Etangs, J. Boissier, A. Vidal-Madjar, H. Beust, A.-M. Lagrange, G. Hébrard, R. Ferlet
The young planetary system surrounding the star β Pictoris harbours active minor bodies. These asteroids and comets produce a large amount of dust and gas through collisions and evaporation, as happened early in the history of our Solar System. Spectroscopic observations of β Pictoris reveal a (...)

Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Qiaomei Fu, Heng Li, Priya Moorjani, Flora Jay, Sergey M. Slepchenko, Aleksei A. Bondarev, Philip L. F. Johnson, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Kay Prüfer, Cesare de Filippo, Matthias Meyer, Nicolas Zwyns, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin, Susan G. Keates, Pavel A. Kosintsev, Dmitry I. Razhev, Michael P. Richards, Nikolai V. Peristov, Michael Lachmann, Katerina Douka, Thomas F. G. Higham, Montgomery Slatkin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, David Reich, Janet Kelso, T. Bence Viola, Svante Pääbo
We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ∼45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry (...)

HIV: Potency needs constancy

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Alexandra Trkola
In a finding that highlights ways to optimize the efficacy of antibody-based therapeutics and vaccines, the activity of potent HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies has been confirmed to depend on cellular binding to the antibodies' Fc (...)

Physiology: Relax and come in

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Kari Vaahtomeri, Michael Sixt
During inflammation, lymph nodes swell with an influx of immune cells. New findings identify a signalling pathway that induces relaxation in the contractile cells that give structure to these organs. See Letter p.498

Astronomy: Hurling comets around a planetary nursery

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Aki Roberge
An analysis of hundreds of star-grazing comets in a young planetary system shows that they form two families: a group of old, dried-out comets and a younger group probably related to the break-up of a larger planetary body. See Letter (...)

Romani & Puccetti reply

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par L. Romani, P. Puccetti
Replying to G. J. Maghzal et al. Nature514, (2014)After our initial observation of defective tryptophan catabolism in experimental chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), several laboratories have been testing the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) competence (...)

Tryptophan catabolism is unaffected in chronic granulomatous disease

mercredi 22 octobre 2014 par Ghassan J. Maghzal, Susann Winter, Bettina Wurzer, Beng H. Chong, Rikard Holmdahl, Roland Stocker
Arising from L. Romani et al.Nature451,211–215 (2008); doi:10.1038/nature06471Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of phagocyte function, caused by a genetic defect in NADPH oxidase (NOX2), leading to an impaired ability of leukocytes to produce superoxide (); CGD (...)

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